"Poverty and Health: Asking the Right Questions" by Victor Fuchs
Hint: It's not completely intuitive. This is a definitive article, a must-read.
1) Low income is probably not the cause of poor health, at least in developed nations.
2) Low income is still correlated with higher mortality, even in countries with universal health care.
3) Education may be the "third variable" that explains the relationship between income and health.
Here, you'll find the highlights of the WHO's "Global Burden of Disease" report, which essentially predicts how we will die in the next few decades. Some of the numbers may surprise you..
I suppose this is health-related too; a map of the world disaster hotspots!